Femen – Getting naked to change the world

How would women being portrayed? Women are often described using words that never appeal to men. Women often described by using the words such as, soft, bad in making decision, bad in driving, stupid, housewife, babysitter and more. In other hand, men are always described as strong, successful in work or breadwinner. Back to the olden time, women need to stay at home take care of family, prepare meal and do housework after they married to a man. They don’t have much chance to explore what’s happen around the world. In today modern society, women no longer stay at home after married to man, we work, we earn money and we can be your boss as well. Women are strong now.

femen logowww.volpeypir.com

Femen – a group of international women’s movement of brace topless female activist painted with the slogans and crowned with flowers founded in Ukraine in 2008. They fight against prostitution, religious institutions, sexism and other social, national and international topics. They wanted to tell the world: Our God is a Woman! Our mission is Protest! Our Weapon is bare breasts! And so FEMEN is born and sextremism is set off (Femen [no date]).

femen-strfemen.org

In the beginning of Femen activity in 2008, they started to fight with prostitution. During the campaign ‘Ukraine Is Not a Brothel’, they proposed to fight the social disaster that is prostitution on a legal level (Shevchenko 2013). How to tackle the issue with prostitute? Prostitute issue exists in every country and the issue never gets solve. Women are always perceived as sex workers and they are the victim in this issue. Prostitution is not a job that independent women will do. Prostitution is a job when women looking for their financial support, prostitute is normally illegal immigrants or trafficked women where they have choice to choose for their job and they force to sell themselves to men. Women are not a product, sex toy or sex worker, women have their right to choose what kind of life they should have. I realize the prostitution issue in the world, but I just never thought of against prostitution. When we talked about prostitution, the first impression that comes to my mind was women who are immorality. They are materialistic. They are bad guy that involve in illegal business. They are the one who destroy the happy family. They want money rather than earning respect in their life. They don’t have principle of their life. They choose the job that not a typical will do. All those negative factors will appear to my mind whenever I heard about prostitute. I will never think of trafficked women who force by someone to do the job that they are unwilling. Just because they want to earn extra money for their family, they trust the wrong person and they trafficked to other country and force to be sex worker. Who will understand their miserable and they always being look down by other.

A group of brave women hold their topless protest to say NO to prostitution. They want to enslave women exploitation and reach sexual equality. If men don’t buy, women don’t sell. No to exploitation! No to prostitution! (Shevchenko 2013). “We’re showing it as powerful women running and facing them. We are not making sexy sounds, we are screaming as much as we can with our political demands, we’re not showing a passive smiling body, we’re showing an aggressive, screaming body. My body is always saying something. I use it as a small poster to write my political demand” said by Inna Shevchenko, a member of the feminist protest group Femen.

femenwww.framedmagazine.com.au

femen 2

femen.org

Reference

Aitkenhead, D 2013, ‘Femen leader Inna Shevchenko: ‘I’m for any for any form of feminism’, The Guardian, accessed 3/6/2014, <http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/nov/08/femen-leader-inna-shevchenko-interview>.

Femen, [no date], About Femen, accessed 3/6/2014, <http://femen.org/about>.

Shevchenko, I 2013, ‘No to Prostitution’, Huffpost Lifestyle, accessed 3/6/2014, <http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/inna-shevchenko/femen-prostitution_b_4083691.html>.

 

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Diasporic media – Asylum seeker / Refugee

For this week blog post, I will be focus on asylum seeker and refugee on why are they leave from their home country and scatter to foreign country. According to BCM310’s note (2014), asylum seeker defined as people who move across borders in search of protection, but who may not fulfill the criteria. Refugee describes a person who has already taken granted for protection. In additional, BCM310’s note (2014) also mention migration is link with journey to the poor, meanwhile people who bring in economy define as relocation and is usually welcome.

Based on my opinion, in Malaysia most of the asylum seeker or refugee is normally from third world country such as Myanmar, Bangladesh and etc. The main reason of them to come is because of earning money. There are less job opportunities in their home country and is very tough for them to survive in their daily life with low income. Therefore, they diaspora to other country just to try to get a better job as compare to their home country, work and send money to their family so that they could have proper life. More and more of them came here and work for blue collar job as in restaurant, cleaner ad etc. Some of them have permit to work here but there are also a big number of them work illegally.

According to Home Minister Datuk Seri Dr Ahmad Zahid Hamidi, a massive operation will be carried out against foreign workers without valid permits and the operation would involve Royal Malaysia Police (PDRM) and other enforcement agencies under the ministry (The Star Online 2013).

Crackdown-on-migrant-workers-Star-020913

www.thestar.com.my

Employer wanted to have foreign worker because they are willing to work for them by taking low pay. Therefore, employer can cut cost on hiring manpower and could make more profit. Local worker is angry with the issue because foreign worker took over their job opportunity. Why are they leaved their home country and work in a foreign country which they are totally not familiar? Most of them are the breadwinner and they need money desperately for their family. They sacrifice themselves and work for their employee but how the employee treats them? We could see from the newspaper there are so many cases on abusing maid, one of the case is the cruel Malaysian couple consistently withheld food from the Indonesian maid during the 3 years she worked for them (South China Morning Post 2014). They are human as well and we should respect them as well. We shouldn’t look down them or treat them as punching bag.

maid

http://www.scmp.com/news/asia/article/1442586/malaysian-couple-hang-murder-indonesian-maid-who-died-starvation

We shouldn’t look down on the people that have low education and treat them badly. We are the same. Everyone should be treated equally.

 

References

Kosmin, R 2014, BCM310 ‘Diasporic Media’, lecture notes, accessed 31/5/2014, moodle@UOW.

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The world is getting smaller

Globalization helps to link people from different place and background together.

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http://wheelockglobalcauses.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/globalization.jpg

According to Olivero (2011), the powerful internet communication regime and access to information anywhere has bring the boundaries of the world down. The internet connects all the users across the entire world. The advance of communication technology make the communication across the globe can be so ubiquitous and instant. With the help of social media (Facebook, YouTube, Whats App, Twitter, Instagram and etc), you can always keep connected with people across the globe. As a comparison with olden day, sending out a letter take long period of time to reach but now in the 21st century where everything have to be done instantly, it only take few seconds to reach. In additional, globalization could enhance cross cultural communication. For example, student from UOW Australia and UOW Malaysia can exchange their opinion and feedback on the same topic. It provides a platform for student from two different cultural backgrounds to have further understanding on different cultural characteristic and the way they act.

The globalization has invited companies to branch into different parts of the world. We can easily saw golden arches across the globe although with different language but we still able to recognize that belong to McDonald. Due to different cultural background that each country has, company will make some changes in their business to meet local need. Malaysia belong to halal country, therefore the menu of McDonald is pork free to make sure consumers in Malaysia will accept.

golden_arches_by_orangejuicer

http://cowtips.files.wordpress.com/2013/01/golden_arches_by_orangejuicer.jpg

mcd

kriyom.typepad.com

In addition, globalization helps to bring in different brand from foreign country to increase people lifestyle. For example, sport wear such as Nike and Adidas is available in many countries. Company exports their product to other foreign country to make profit and also provide more choices for consumers. Consumers are able to recognize their brand and understand the goods that offer from that company. It might come with different language in their brand name or slogan, but we still able to recognize.

nike

ihustlekicks.com

Katy Perry y Adidas

a-hill1215-sb.blogspot.com

Globalization has connect people around to globe and bring in benefits to us.

 

References.

Olivero.T. 2011. Globalization: Understanding the Impact of Globalization on our World. Accessed 24/5/2014. <http://www.theogm.com/2011/11/29/globalization-understanding-the-impact-of-globalization-on-our-world/>.

Drew. B. [n.d]. Importance of Business Communications in Globalization. Accesed 24/5/2014. <http://www.ehow.com/info_8401405_importance-business-communications-globalization.html.

Mathews. J. [n.d]. The Impact of Global Communication on Cultures. Accessed 24/5/2014. <http://www.ehow.com/info_8404549_impact-global-communication-cultures.html>.

 

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Chinese , Malay , Indian

Malaysia, the country that I belong in that includes 3 main races – Chinese, Malay, and Indian. We are free to choose our own religious except Malay where they need to be in Islamic. Malay is the largest ethnic group in Malaysia makes up more than 50% of the population. The second largest ethnic group makes up from Chinese about 25% of the population. The smallest of 3 main ethnic groups is Indian which form about 10% of the population. Although we are free in choosing own religious but racism issue still there and never been solve. One of the main problems might because of ethnocentrism where each of the ethnic thinks that our own religious is more superior to others. Things that are not familiar to our culture we resist to accept it and set our own judges on things that unfamiliar to us.

I’m a Chinese, born and grow in Malaysia. Am I racist? Honestly, yes I am. I will have that kind of perception that my own religious is better than others. I feel more comfortable with people that same ethnic with me. Because we shared the same culture value, is more easy for me to build up relationship with them and we understand what can or can’t said. It doesn’t mean that I only make friend with my own ethnic group, I still make friend from other ethnic groups. I will be extra careful when I talk to them, joke on them or using some non-verbal language. Because I’m not belonging in their group, I’m not familiar with their taboos and accidentally offense them therefore it make me feel more careful express when together.

As for every Chinese family, they will scare their children by warning them “if you naughty, neh neh will catch you.” The neh neh that they refer to is Indian guy. As I grow up, I think why they say neh neh might because of the language – Tamil. The pronunciation is there and they use it to scare the children. Indian people don’t have fair skin color like Chinese, small kid might think they are different from them so they are afraid of neh neh. From young, we already been told that Indian guy is the bad guy that will catch us, we started to build negative image on that ethnic group. We stereotype all of them are bad guy that doing illegal thing or involve in crime. Based on the one side information that our own ethnic tell us, we have negative stereotype on them and it is unfair. Other races also involve in crime, we shouldn’t only stereotype neh neh is the one who will only involve in doing the bad thing.

When discuss about Malay ethnic, things that come to mind is slow, bad in mathematics and government department. We sometimes need to spare one day when we need to go government office. Majority of Malay ethnic work in government office, their working style is a bit slow. Sometime it took quite longer time to finish one task. I will joke on my friend that he/she must be graduate from Malay school especially those who are bad in mathematics. It might because every time I purchase food from Malay store is much cheaper and my dad actually told me they are bad in counting that’s why so cheap. But now the price increase, not really that cheap now.

Let’s talk about my ethnic group – Chinese. How others 2 ethnic group stereotype us? Kia su , Ah Beng, Cina Babi, A – Long, kiam siap…… I agree that Chinese are quite kia su in a way. We wanted to have more benefit compare to others. What you have now I must also have and make sure I will have one extra thing than you. The Chinese business man is very money minded. They want to earn more profit by providing less quality of good or service to consumer. When we saw a people with blond hair or ‘colorful’ hair color, for guy we will address them as Ah Beng, for girl Ah Lian. Even I myself also often use that to describe people. When a guy have tattoo on their both hand, using ‘branded’ sling bag, must be A – Long (loan shark). There are some local movie production screen about loan shark by using Chinese actors. Each of different ethnic group has their own specialty types of stereotype.

loan-shark-poster-500
         http://www.kiciken.com

s24439914

http://www.movie.douban.com

The purpose for me writing this blog post is not attempt to insult any races. I just wanted to share my own opinion in racism issue. I believe that conflict is there because we have different ethnic groups that practice different cultural value. We don’t have a full understanding on others cultural value that’s why we will have misunderstanding with each other. Don’t make decision and judgment by only listening to one side information. It will influence the harmony between each ethnic group and affect our country reputation. Since we are in a country that have different ethnic group, we should appreciate that. We don’t want 13 May 1969 incident happen again.

 

References

Asean Tourism 2014, ‘About Malaysia’, Asean Tourism, accessed 18/5/2014, <http://www.atf-malaysia.com/index.php/about-malaysia>.

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Gender and media – Disney movie

Let’s do some exercise together before I start to blog about this week topic. Imagine yourself into 2 situations below and choose the 1 that most appropriate to you.

Story A – You are a princess, living in a beautiful castle, carefree life, wealthy, have all the gorgeous clothes, beautiful accessories (jewelry, diamond……), expensive cosmetic. You are a beautiful princess, white skin, long hair, you are the apple of the King and Queen, being pampered by the King and Queen, providing you all the best things and others benefits. One day, when you grow up you will meet a handsome, macho, romantic, wealthy prince. Since then, the prince and princess live together and form a happy family.

If the story above doesn’t suit you don’t worry, have a look at the story below.

Story B – You born in an ordinary family, live in cottage, lower class family, and wearing clothes that people throw away. You need to work from day to night, rough and dry skin, messy hair, broken clothes. Your parent couldn’t provide you the best thing because the income is very limited. You are living under a very tough life BUT one day you meet a handsome guy beside the river. You two fall in love with each other at the first sight. After that you realize that he is a prince, you leave the prince because you afraid the social class is the barrier. The prince is panic and looks for you, at the end his real sentiments has melt you. You become a princess and marry him. Since then, the prince and princess live together and form a happy family.

What’s your decision? Does it sound familiar to you where the typical scenario that a Disney movie will play.

When I was a small little girl, I remember my parent bought me Disney movie and Disney princess count as accompanies for my perfect childhood. Disney movie mostly end with happy ending which is the prince and princess will get marry and live in a beautiful castle. When I was small little girl, I’ve imagine that one day I will meet my handsome prince, we will get married and live in the castle just like how to movie show us. I believe most of the little girl had that sweet dream before. As I grow up, I realize that beautiful ending won’t appear in our real life, that beautiful ending will only exist in fairy tale. My dream and heart are broken.

From the Disney movie, we can see that two male and female are portrayed differently in terms of their roles. From the pass Disney movie, male character have been more prominent and portrayed as more likely to have a recognizable job, more independent, assertive, intelligent, athletic, important, competent, technical, confident, responsible, and stronger than female characters (Yerby & Baron & Lee n.d.). On the other hand, female characters have been portrayed as weaker, more controlled by others, emotional, warmer, tentative, romantic, affectionate, sensitive, frailer, passive, complaining, domestic, stereotypical, and troublesome by male characters (Yerby & Baron & Lee n.d.). We could see that the way how to differentiate the characteristic of two genders. The female will be the weak character and the male will be hero to save female character when they are in danger.

With the recent movie that Disney release such as Frozen, show notable progression. The story tells two sisters, one with magical freezing powers (Elsa) and one that is authentic, awkward young woman (Anna). During the coronation, two sisters have an argument and Elsa accidentally reveals the powers in-front of everyone. Elsa then runs away into the mountains. We would normally think that there should be a male character (true love) found Elsa break the curse and bring her back. Unfortunately, we are wrong. Anna was the one who went into mountains and found her sister back. At the end of the story, there is no big kiss to save the day. Instead sisterly love is what breaks the curse and sets everything right (Grammer, 2014). On the other hand, there is a prince character play in the movie. The prince is not the main character of the movie, not acting hero in the movie, in-fact he is lying to Anna. From the movie Frozen, they breaks the ice of Disney gender stereotype as portray women as weak character and hero will definitely play as male character. Anna who has the courage and braves enough to save her sister from the mountain has shown that the female has the power of saving the kingdom, powerful, and able to maintain the family relationship. Female also could handle the job that a male have now.

As in our real life, there are many stereotypes on gender. Let’s take an example, women are bad in driving. We have this kind of mindset stick in our mind, every time we saw someone that is lack of driving skill on the road, we would say ‘must be a women driver’. Negative stereotype could damage a person reputation and it might lead to misunderstanding with others. Stereotyping is unfair for a people to judge his/her personality without credible information. We couldn’t say that female is bad driver, female is more to careful driver where female don’t speed and we are more concern when driving on the road therefore the accident rate that female involve in is lower than male.

Gender stereotype is one of the serious issue in those under develop country. They perceive male as superior and female as slaughter. There is case regard to female infanticide where newborn girl found buried alive in India. Police believe the baby is yet another victim of female infanticide common in India. Female infanticide is the tragic result of poverty and of cultural attitudes in which families prefer baby boys to girls because boys carry on the “family name,” bring wealth to the family, while girls are viewed as economic burdens (Didymus 2013). An innocent life is being killed just because of the culture perception that they have, isn’t it unfair?

In conclusion, gender stereotype consider as an issue in society. Do you think both genders should be treated equality is helpful to resolve the problem?

 

References

Didymus, JT 2013, ‘Female infanticide: Newborn girl found buried alive in India,’ Digital Journalism, 5 July, accessed 12/5/2014, <http://digitaljournal.com/article/353738&gt;.

Grammer, S 2014, “Frozen” movie breaks the ice for Disney’s gender stereotypes, The Bullet, accessed 12/5/2014, <http://umwbullet.com/2014/01/29/frozen-movie-breaks-the-ice-for-disneys-gender-stereotypes/ >.

Yerby, A & Baron, S & Lee, YJ n.d., ‘Gender roles in Disney animation’, History of Animation, accessed 12/5/2014, <http://www.american.edu/soc/film/upload/gender-roles-in-disney.pdf >

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Emerging issues in journalism in Malaysia

A journalist is the one who collects, writes, and report the information to public regard to the hot issue that happening around the world. The scope of news journalism includes general, politics, economy, crime, sports and entertainment. The main objective of journalist is to deliver information to public from the past till now. Due to the fast changes in society, the way how information has been collected, analyze, interpret and how they report also change to fit in the society but the main objective still remain deliver information. Furthermore, the advance of technology also affects the way people consume media. We no longer rely on one single source to look for information. There are different pathways for public to look for information especially the new media. Nowadays, people tend to rely more on new media when they try to search for information.

According to Kaul (2013), the arrival of digital revolution – the evolution of Internet has emergence the new forms of media and the rise of social networks has reshaped the media landscape. The competition with mainstreams media is one of the major challenge that journalism facing now. In today fast-paced society, people communicate 24/7 without barriers. More and more are turning to their computers, mobile phone, tablets and other electronic device that could access to internet and quickly become the primary way of receiving information. Reader can decide on what to read, when to read, and how to read. Internet allow reader access anytime therefore reader can access to look for immediate update regard to the latest information such as, General Election 13 or MH370. Unlike the traditional media where public need to wait for specific time for reporter to disseminate news to public. Today’s society is looking for instant information; we want information to be received in the short period of time. They can access to any information they are interested. The hyperlink also could help reader to access from one webpage to another webpage with the related topic.

The arrival of digital revolution also rises up the practice of citizen journalism. Citizen journalism is defined as the act of a citizen or a group of citizens involved in the process of collecting, reporting, analyzing and disseminating news and other forms of information to provide independence, wide ranging, and relevant information that is crucial to democratic societies (Barners 2012). With the coming of the new media, people who have long been on the receiving end of one-way mass communication are now increasing likely to become producers and transmitters (Sahman, A & Ibrahim, F & Mustaffa, N & Mahbob, M & Mohd Yusof Hj.Abduallah 2011). The new media is a platform where citizens could voice out their opinion regarding to the issue they are care. We have mobile phone with us, take a picture, write some words and upload it and we are can be a journalist. We are practicing the role of being a journalist as well. Citizen journalism is active in the form of blogs and websites. There is no gatekeeper take control on the message and filter the message before it’s publish to the mass audience. Unlike the traditional media, the gatekeeper (the government) is there and taking control on the news that sends out to the public. The information need to be double check, triple check by editor before is disseminate out to public. They may hide some of the information, censorship or other barriers to stop public from getting the real information. From last week guest lecture, we get know that citizen journalism have no any rules and ethics to follow. They are free to write and centralize their writing and ideas. Besides, it also allows two way communications where information can be exchanging.

In today fast-paced society, everything goes online. No doubt, immediate information is a must for us but we also look into more interactive and attractive way when searching for information. The new media allow us to post video, image and audio which is more interactive compare to the traditional media with only words. For those who prefer more visual than word, they can look for video or images to receive the information. Besides, there are different types of journalist available by using different method to illustrate the message such as, comic journalist, symbolia (tablet magazine of illustrated journalism).

We could see more newspaper industry has emerged to e-news for readers to subscribe. Everything goes online and people are used to that kind of media consumption. In Malaysia, the effect of the new media on conventional media is still manageable. Malaysians still prefer to get their news through the print newspaper, radio and television (Sahman, A & Ibrahim, F & Mustaffa, N & Mahbob, M & Mohd Yusof Hj.Abduallah 2011). In my opinion, the baby boomers generation still rely on traditional media when they seeking on news information, Gen X use both traditional and new media when searching information while Gen Y is more to new media when information searching. One day, new media will take over traditional media due to the digital society that we are in now. Journalism industry has to make adaptation to fit in the society and fulfill their needs.

 

References

Barnes, C 2012, “Citizen journalism vs traditional journalism: A case for collaboration”, Carribean Quarterly, vol.58, no.2, pp16-27, accessed 27/4/2014, ProQuest Central database.

Kaul, V 2013, “Journalism In The Age Of Digital Technology,” Journal of Communication and Media Technologies, 3:1, pp125 – 143, accessed 27/4/2014.

Salman, A& Ibrahim, F& Mustaffa, N& Haizan Mahbob, M& Mohd Yusof Hj.Abdullah, “The Impact of New Media on Traditional Mainstream Mass Media”, The Public Sector Innovation Journal, vol.16(3), accessed 27/4/2014.

 

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Graffiti – Art or Vandalism

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Image Source : http://becnicholas.edublogs.org/files/2009/05/graffiti460.jpg

The definition of graffiti is writing or drawings scribbled, scratched, or sprayed illicitly on any surface in a public space. In your opinion, what is the perception of graffiti to you? Art or vandalism?

When you heard about the word ‘graffiti’, you probably think of vandalism, damage, gangs and other illegal action. People always labeled graffiti as vandalism; therefore we will have negative perception to the word ‘graffiti’. Just because graffiti artist don’t have a proper art gallery to display their artwork so it consider as vandalism? If Leonardo Da Vinci would have painted Mona Lisa on a wall, would this seen as vandalism?

Graffiti is widely found in depose property, parking lots, street, electricity poles, garage, subway, and other inconspicuous place. Why graffiti is only appearing at those inconspicuous places but not at the hot spot places where people will normally pass by? Graffiti could be a form of expression about own thought, anger, social issue or political message. Graffiti artist fear to openly express their feeling to the public therefore they choose graffiti – which majority won’t give lots attention on that to voice out their opinion. When it comes to sensitive issue such as, political issue, racist, sexist and etc……, the barrier is there and restricts us to discuss about the issue in public space and afraid of provoke lawsuits. In another hand, graffiti actually reflect the personal view on particular issue. When there is a limited freedom of expression, drawing or writing could be a form of way to tell other what’s happening now and to inform others your opinion on the issue. For third world country where everything is being controlled and limit for freedom of speech, is quite difficult for citizens to know about the latest update and voice out the dissatisfied, graffiti actually could help people to understand more and also another way to inform public about the point of view of the issue. Not only a kind of expression, informing public about the issue but it also provides a platform for people to discuss on the issue. There are different paintings across the street by different graffiti artist and each of them will have different perception by drawing their thoughts out. Different paintings represent different points of view and try to understand what they trying to deliver. They communicate through art.

Image

Image Source : http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/jonathanjonesblog/2014/apr/14/new-banksy-gchq-chelmsford-bourgeois

In the image above, we could see that people are more interested with their mobile phone even their love one is beside them.

In my own opinion, graffiti could be part of cross cultural communication. Graffiti is form by small group of people; each of the members in the group might have different unique cultural background and cultural perception. Due to different cultural perspective, people create thing based on what they familiar with. From the graffiti from different graffiti artist, we could discover the difference from each cultural background through the graffiti. Graffiti can be kind of exchanging information with people and reflective of individuality from different background. It can consider as a way to inform us what is each culture belief, lifestyle, behavior, interest, art and etc…… through graffiti. When two different culture backgrounds met, that is how cross cultural communication occur.

In conclusion, I think graffiti belongs to art. They have the ability to inform people without informing. Audience could have an idea about what graffiti artist is trying to deliver through graffiti. I would agree graffiti artist is talented and we should appreciate their work as well.

References

Delavari,S 2013, Graffiti should be recognized as art, not vandalism, Calabasas Courier Online, viewed 16 April 2014, http://chscourier.com/opinions/2013/10/31/graffiti-should-be-recognized-as-art-not-vandalism/

Hub Pages, 2009, Graffiti is art, not vandalism, Hub Pages, viewed 16 April 2014, http://tcboss.hubpages.com/hub/Graffiti-is-art

Jena,N 2013, Graffiti: A powerful form of expression, The Standard, viewed 16 April 2014, http://www.thestandard.co.zw/2013/09/29/graffiti-powerful-form-expression/

Jones, J 2014, Mobile Lovers, image, The Guardian, viewed 16 April 2014, http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/jonathanjonesblog/2014/apr/14/new-banksy-gchq-chelmsford-bourgeois

Nicole De Freitas, 2012, Graffiti a form of expression, Pixelsmith Studios, viewed 16 April 2014, http://pixelsmithstudios.com/graphic-design-illustrations/graffiti-a-form-of-expression/

 

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